Mars does not have a global magnetic field similar to Earth, but there are still auroras, one of which is called the proton aurora, which scientists believe to be formed indirectly.
Through joint observations by NASA’s Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN) satellite and the United Arab Emirates’ Emirates Mars Mission (EMM), scientists’ speculation has been confirmed again, but the details are different.
The proton aurora is one of the aurora on Mars. It was first confirmed by MAVEN in 2018. It is the interaction between the solar wind and the upper atmosphere of Mars. The latest observed planetary aurora was captures by Webb Telescope.
MAVEN and the European Space Agency (European Space Agency, ESA) Mars Express (Mars Express) joint observations, showing that this kind of aurora is evenly distributed on the sun-facing side of Mars, but joint observations with Hope have shown that proton auroras are sometimes highly irregular.
In general, the induced magnetosphere can slightly resist the sun’s high-speed charged particles and neutrons, resulting in a uniform proton aurora (top), but sometimes it hits the upper atmosphere at different locations to generate a proton aurora with uneven density (bottom).
In general, the bow (sound with the same name) of Mars to the sun will change the direction of the solar wind, and the induced magnetosphere will change the direction of the solar wind.
But sometimes the solar wind directly invades the upper atmosphere around Mars and gradually loses the Martian atmosphere. The hydrogen that produces the proton auroras comes from the water in the Martian atmosphere.
Scientists were surprised by this discovery, but the impact of these data alone on the Martian atmosphere is still unclear, and researchers hope that follow-up observations from Hope and MAVEN may provide more help.